Optical Lenses

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"There are many ancient classical texts which specifically describe both magnification and works produced under magnification by craftsmen. For instance, the Roman author Seneca speaks of magnification, and Cicero, Pliny and others described microscopic works of art.
...
It is from Cicero's description of a miniature version of the Iliad so small that it could fit inside a walnut shell that our modern expression, 'in a nutshell', came into use, passed on by Shakespeare's Hamlet into modern usage.
"[1]

Egypt

Layard Lens

Ground Optical Lenses and Mirrors

[1] "Forbidden Technology", Robert Temple © 2000-2002